IRI

Initiative & Referendum Institute

at the University of Southern California 

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To learn more about I&R

in your state just click below.


 

To learn more about I&R

legal requirements just click below.


 

To find out what has been on your state's ballot just check out the box below.


 

Description of Processes

 


 

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Initiative & Referendum States

The map shows which states have the initiative and referendum process (citizens can place issues on the ballot) and what type.  Every state has some form of the legislative process which allows the government to place issues on the ballot and so therefore is not referenced in the map. Please click here for a complete listing of legislative referendum states and a breakdown of which states allow legislative constitutional amendments and those that allow legislative statutes.


State-by-State List of Initiative and Referendum Provisions

State

Date adopted

Type of
process available

Type of Initiative
process available

Type of initiative
process used to propose
constitutional amendments

Type of initiative
process used to propose
statutes

Initiative

Referendum

Constitutional Amendment

Statute

Direct

Indirect

Direct

Indirect

AK
AZ
AR
CA
CO

1956
1911
1910
1911
1912

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No
No

No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
No
No
No
No

FL
ID
IL
ME

1972
1912
1970
1908

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
Yes
No
Yes

Yes
No
Yes
No

No
Yes
No
Yes

Yes
No
Yes
No

No
No
No
No

No
Yes
No
No

No
No
No
Yes

MD
MA
MI
MS
MO

1915
1918
1908
1914/92
1908

No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes

No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes

No
No
Yes
No
Yes

No
Yes
No
Yes
No

No
No
No
No
Yes

No
Yes
Yes
No
No

MT
NE
NV
NM
ND

1904/72
1912
1905
1911
1914

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes

No
No
No
No
No

Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes

No
No
Yes
No
No

OH
OK
OR
SD

1912
1907
1902
1898/72/88

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No
No

No
Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
No
No
No

UT
WA
WY

1900/17
1912
1968

Yes
Yes
Yes

Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No

Yes
Yes
Yes

No
No
No

No
No
No

Yes
Yes
No

Yes
Yes
Yes

Totals

27 states

24 states

23 states

18 states

21 states

16 states

2 states

14 states

9 states

 

Every state allows the legislature to place a measure on the ballot. Every state except Delaware requires a popular vote to approve constitutional amendments.