STATE I&R

The grid below shows which states have the initiative and referendum process (citizens can place issues on the ballot) and what type. Every state has some form of the legislative process which allows the government to place issues on the ballot and so therefore is not referenced in the map. Please click here for a complete listing of legislative referendum states and a breakdown of which states allow legislative constitutional amendments and those that allow legislative statutes.

State-by-State List of Initiative and Referendum Provisions

State Date adopted Type of
process available
Type of Initiative
process available
Type of initiative
process used to propose
constitutional amendments
Type of initiative
process used to propose
statutes
Initiative Referendum Constitutional Amendment Statute Direct Indirect Direct Indirect
AK
AZ
AR
CA
CO
1956
1911
1910
1911
1912
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
FL
ID
IL
ME
1972
1912
1970
1908
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
MD
MA
MI
MS
MO
1915
1918
1908
1914/92
1908
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
MT
NE
NV
NM
ND
1904/72
1912
1905
1911
1914
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
Yes
No
No
OH
OK
OR
SD
1912
1907
1902
1898/72/88
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
UT
WA
WY
1900/17
1912
1968
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
No
No
No
No
No
No
Yes
Yes
No
Yes
Yes
Yes
Totals 27 states 24 states 23 states 18 states 21 states 16 states 2 states 14 states 9 states

Every state allows the legislature to place a measure on the ballot. Every state except Delaware requires a popular vote to approve constitutional amendments.

Other State Initiative and Referendum Resources