IRI Historical Database


The database lists all statewide initiatives to appear on the ballot since the first statewide initiative in Oregon in 1904. This list does not contain information on issues placed on the ballot by state legislatures, commonly referred to as "legislative measures." The Institute has only tracked legislative referendums since the 1998 general election and a listing of those ballot measures can be found in the above general election reports. For information on accessing the database, contact John G. Matsusaka, President, The most-requested extract is the number of initiatives and approval rate by state and year, provided below:

Initiatives (number, approved) by state and year, 1904-2019


Legal Landscape Database


The Legal Landscape Database describes direct democracy provisions in American cities in 2005. The database includes the 1,000 largest cities in the country as well as the ten largest cities in every state. Data items include city name, FIPS code, population, and initiative status.


Data (Excel file)