Constitutional and Statutory Provisions
Ohio voters approved a constitutional amendment establishing I&R in November
1912, the Ohio leaders turned their attention to the state next door. Rev.
Herbert S. Bigelow and other leaders spoke throughout the state and helped
organize a Citizensí League to work for I&R. Yet a native Indiana reformer gave
the situation a gloomy assessment in 1914: "Indiana, politically, is one of the
most backward of our States. It must continue to be, under the ironclad
restrictions of the present constitution. The state has remained untouched by
the progressive movement in the states around it." The only victory for I&R
advocates came in 1913, when the legislature approved a Public Utilities Act
that included a provision allowing municipal initiatives to mandate municipal
purchase and operation of utilities (Public Service Commission Act of 1913,
Sect. 8-1-2-99/100 [54-612, 613]).
State Senator John Bushemi of Gary waged a long, lonely battle in the late 1970s
and 1980s to pass a statewide I&R amendment, but he received little support from
other legislators and constituents.
David Schmidt, Citizen Lawmakers: The Ballot
Initiative Revolution (Temple University Press, 1989).